Composting is a simple way to add nutrient-rich humus which fuels plant growth and restores vitality to depleted soil. It’s also free, easy to make and good for the environment.
Jhana is a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention. It is the cornerstone in the development of Right Concentration.
Nibbana names the transcendent and singularly ineffable freedom that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha’s teachings.
See also Theravada Buddhism: A Chronology
Theravada (pronounced — more or less — “terra-VAH-dah”), the “Doctrine of the Elders,” is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha’s teachings. For many centuries, Theravada has been the predominant religion of continental Southeast Asia (Thailand, Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia, and Laos) and Sri Lanka. Today Theravada Buddhists number well over 100 million worldwide. In recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West.
A charnel ground (Devanagari: श्मशान; Romanized Sanskrit: śmaśāna; Tibetan pronunciation: durtrö; Tibetan: དུར་ཁྲོད, Wylie: dur khrod), in concrete terms, is an above-ground site for the putrefaction of bodies, generally human, where formerly living tissue is left to decompose uncovered. Although it may have demarcated locations within it functionally identified as burial grounds,cemeteries and crematoria, it is distinct from these as well as from crypts or burial vaults.
In a religious sense, it is also a very important location for sadhana and ritual activity for Indo-Tibetan traditions of Dharmaparticularly those traditions iterated by the Tantric view such as Kashmiri Shaivism, Kaula tradition, Esoteric Buddhism, Vajrayana,Mantrayana, Dzogchen, and the sadhana of Chöd, Phowa and Zhitro, etc. The charnel ground is also an archetypal liminality that figures prominently in the literature and liturgy and as an artistic motif in Dharmic Traditions and cultures iterated by the moreantinomian and esoteric aspects of traditional Indian culture.
This is what I heard— At one time the Buddha was staying in the land of the Kurus, where they have a city called Kammāsadhamma. There the Buddha addressed the monastics: “Monastics!” “Venerable sir”, they replied. The Buddha said this:
“Monastics, this is the path where all things come together as one, to purify sentient beings, to make an end of pain and sadness, to get past sorrow and lamentation, to reach the way, to witness Nibbāna; that is, the four kinds of mindfulness meditation.
What four? Here, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of feelings, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of the mind, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of principles, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.