Keyhole Gardens

First made popular in Africa, keyhole gardens are catching on in Texas and other hot, dry places. Keyhole gardens hold moisture and nutrients due to an active compost pile placed in the center of a round bed. Although most helpful in hot and dry locations a keyhole garden will improve growing conditions in just about any climate.

From a bird’s eye view the garden is shaped as a keyhole. A notch is cut into a round garden bed, the notch makes for easy access to the center compost well. (Note the first diagram below; to see keyhole.)

Keyhole garden in Uganda by Send a Cow. This sustainable gardening method uses kitchen and garden waste and gray water (or wash water) as food for your garden.
8 detail_keyhole
Keyhole garden scheme. Layering is proven to enhance soil health. Layering sugestions: wood on very bottom, next cardboard, next a bit of compost, next petroleum-free newspaper, manure, worms, wood ash, straw, topsoil. Repeat, compost, straw, topsoil or some such combination until you reach desired height.
keyhole garden
When it rains or when you water your compost, the nutrients will seep into the surrounding bed. During rainy spells you might wish to cover the compost so the nutrients in the compost do not leach out too rapidly.


Porción 1 2 4
Leche 1-1 1/4 Tazas 2 Tazas 4 Tazas
Sal 1/8 tsp 1/4 tsp 1/2 tsp
Semolina 3 tbsp 1/3 Taza 3/4 Taza

  1. hervir la leche. Mover constantemente para que no se derrame.
  2. Incorporar gradualmente la semolina batiendo constantemente  hasta que se incorpore bien.
  3. Hervir de nuevo; reducir llama a bajo, cocer destapado por 2 minutos o hasta que espese. Mover frecuentemente.
  4. Dejarlo enfriar un poco.


  1. Mezclar 3 tbsps de semolina con 3/4 Tazas de leche y una pizca de sal.
  2. Poner en el micro en High 1 minuto. batir. Cocinar 1 o 2 minutos adicionales hasta que espese, batiendo cada 30 segundos.


Jackie and her scones are the main attraction at Casey’s Cosy Corner Cafe in the Assembly Rooms Lancaster.

In this film Jackie shares her secrets…it’s all in the hands.

3lb Plain Flour
10oz Marg
3oz Baking powerder
12oz Caster sugar
9oz Fruit
1 1/2 pts Milk
3 Eggs

Filmed as part of What’s Cooking Grandmas of Lancaster.

Visit for more…

Kitchen Nightmares

S01E01 – Peter’s – Babylon, NY  **closed**
S01E02 – Dillon’s – New York, NY   **renamed Purnima, closed**
S01E03 – Mixing Bowl – Bellmore, NY   **closed**
S01E04 – Seascape – Islip, NY   **sold**  **Closed**
S01E05 – Olde Stone Mill – Tuckahoe, NY **Sold**
S01E06 – Sebastian’s – Toluca Lake, CA  **closed**
S01E07 – Finn McCool’s – Westhampton, NY  **Sold**
S01E08 – Lela’s – Pomona, CA   **closed**
S01E09 – Campania – Fair Lawn, NJ  **sold, then closed** 3 years later
S01E10 – Secret Garden – Moorpark, CA

S02E01 – Handlebar – Mount Sinai, NY   **closed**
S02E02 – Giuseppe’s – Macomb Township, MI   **closed**
S02E03 – Trobiano’s – Great Neck, NY   **closed**
S02E04 – Black Pearl – New York, NY  **closed**
S02E05 – J Willy’s – South Bend, IN **closed**
S02E06 – Hannah & Mason’s – Cranbury, NJ   **closed**
S02E07 – Jack’s Waterfront – St. Clair Shores, MI   **closed**
S02E08 – Sabatiello’s – Stamford, CT   **closed**
S02E09 – Fiesta Sunrise – West Nyack, NY **closed**
S02E10 – Santé La Brea – Los Angeles, CA**closed**
S02E11 – Cafe 36 – La Grange, IL **closed**

S03E01 – Hot Potato Cafe – Philadelphia, PA   **closed**
S03E02 – Flamangos – Whitehouse Station, NJ   **renamed The Junction** **closed**
S03E03 – Bazzini – Ridgewood, NJ   **closed**
S03E04 – Mojito – Brooklyn, NY
S03E05 – Lido di Manhattan Beach – Manhattan Beach, CA
S03E06 – Le Bistro – Lighthouse Point, FL
S03E07 – Casa Roma – Lancaster, CA  **Closed**
S03E08 – Mama Rita’s – Newbury Park, CA   **closed**
S03E09 – Anna Vincenzo’s – Boca Raton, FL  **closed**
S03E10 – Fleming – Miami, FL **Closed**
S03E11 – Sushi-Ko – Thousand Oaks, CA   **closed**

S04E01 – Spanish Pavillion – Harrison, NJ
S04E02 – Classic American – West Babylon, NY
S04E03 – PJ’s Steakhouse – Queens, NY   **closed**
S04E04 – Grasshopper Also – Carlstadt, NJ
S04E05 – Davide – Boston, MA
S04E06 – Down City – Providence, RI  **Closed**
S04E07 – Cafe Tavolini – Bridgeport, CT **closed**
S04E08 – Kingston Cafe – Pasadena, CA
S04E09 – La Frite – Sherman Oaks, CA
S04E10 – Capri – Eagle Rock, CA
S04E11 – Zeke’s – Metairie, LA
S04E12 – Oceana – New Orleans, LA

S05E01 – Blackberrys – Plainfield, NJ
S05E02 – Leone’s – Montclair, NJ
S05E03 – Mike & Nellies – Oakhurst, NJ
S05E04 – Luigi’s – Anaheim, CA
S05E05&06 – Burger Kitchen – Los Angeles, CA **closed**
S05E07 – The Greek at the Harbor – Ventura, CA
S05E08 – Michon’s – College Park, GA
S05E09 – El Greco – Austin, TX **Closed**
S05E10 – Park’s Edge – Atlanta, GA
S05E11 – Spin-A-Yarn Steakhouse – Fremont, CA
S05E12 – Charlie’s – La Verne, CA
S05E13 – Cafe Hon – Baltimore, MD
S05E14 – Chiarella’s – Philadelphia, PA
S05E15 – Zocalo – Philadelphia, PA

S01E01 – Bonapartes Restaurant – Silsden, England   **closed**
S01E02 – The Glass House – Ambleside, England
S01E03 – The Walnut Tree Inn – Llandewi Skirrid, Wales   **closed**
S01E04 – Moore Place – Esher, England   **sold, now Esteem**

S02E01 – La Lanterna – Letchworth, England   **closed**
S02E02 – D-Place – Chelmsford, England   **closed**
S02E03 – Momma Cherri’s Soul Food Shack – Brighton, England
S02E04 – La Riviera – Inverness, Scotland   **renamed to Abstract**

S03E01 – Oscar’s – Nantwich, England   **sold**
S03E02 – The Sandgate Hotel – Sandgate, England   **sold**
S03E03 – Clubway 41 – Blackpool, England   **closed**
S03E04 – La Gondola – Derby, England   **sold**

S04E01 – La Parra de Burriana – Nerja, Spain   **closed**
S04E02 – The Fenwick Arms – Claughton, England  **sold**
S04E03 – Rococo – King’s Lynn, England   **closed**
S04E04 – Morgans – Liverpool, England

S05E01 – Ruby Tate’s – Brighton, England   **closed**
S05E02 – Piccolo Teatro – Paris, France   **closed**
S05E05 – The Priory – Haywards Heath, England  **sold, now La Capilla, a tapas bar**
S05E06 – The Fish and Anchor – Lampeter, Wales
S05E07 – Curry Lounge – Nottingham, England
S05E08 – The Granary – Titchfield, England   **closed**

Great British Nightmare
S01E01 – The Dovecote Bistro – Devon, England
S01E02 – The Runaway Girl – Sheffield, England

Shepherd Pie


The Filling:

Olive Oil (2 Tbsp)
Ground Lamb or Beef (about 1.5 lbs)
1 Large Carrot (grated)
1 Large Onion (grated)
Fresh Rosemary
Fresh Thyme
Minced Garlic (I used 4 cloves)
Worcestershire Sauce (several splashes)
Tomato Puree or Paste (no more than a small can)
Red Wine (several glugs)
Chicken Stock (not sure, but it looks like about 1/4 cup)

The Mash:

Golden Potatoes (about 1.5 lbs)
Heavy Cream ( 1/4 cup)
Butter (3 1/2 Tbsp)
Egg Yolks (2)
Parmesan Cheese (1/4 cup, minimum)

Prep Work:

Dice the garlic
Separate your herbs from the stems
Separate your Egg Yolks
Peel and Slice your potatoes into even pieces
Open your wine if it’s not already
Open your can of Tomato Paste

Cooking the Potatoes:

This part is easy as pie (no pun intended), just boil some water, throw some salt and your potatoes in, and set a timer for 15 minutes – start on your filling. Upon the timer going off, take your potatoes out and strain the water off. Put potatoes back into the pan, or into a medium mixing bowl. Mash the potatoes with their ingredients from above and keep warm (your filling should be about done by this point)
Cooking the Filling:

Pour Olive Oil into a hot, rather large pan, then add meat. Stir meat as if your life depends on it for a few minutes so it’s nice and brown, and broken into very small pieces. Add your Rosemary, Thyme, and Garlic, then stir some more. Quickly add your Carrot, and Onion, stir a little longer. The idea at this point is to get everything to a minced consistency.

Add Worcestershire Sauce, stir, add Tomato Puree, stir, add Red Wine and sweat down for a minute or two. Add chicken stock and cook for 3 more minutes. I made mine without the stock because I didn’t notice it the first time I watched the show. You can add it, or leave it out.
Final Instructions:

Scoop your meat mixture into a deep casserole or other oven safe dish and then spoon the mash over the top. Spread the mash over the top of the mix with the bottom of the spoon and then sprinkle a generous portion of Parmesan cheese over the top. Poke the top with a fork several times to give it a peaked look and stick it in the oven at 400 degrees for 18-20 minutes to brown the potatoes and set the pie. Serve it up and watch people melt! Oh I love Shepherd Pie!

Continue reading “Shepherd Pie”


Hepatitis (plural: hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice, poor appetite and malaise. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis.

Worldwide,  causes include autoimmune diseases and ingestion of toxic substances (notably alcohol, certain medications, some industrial organic solvents, and plants).

Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide.[5] Other common causes of non-viral hepatitis include toxic and drug-induced, alcoholic, autoimmune, fatty liver, and metabolic disorders.[6] Less commonly some bacterial, parasitic, fungal, mycobacterial and protozoal infections can cause hepatitis.[7][8] Additionally, certain complications of pregnancy and decreased blood flow to the liver can induce hepatitis.[7][9] Cholestasis (obstruction of bile flow) due to hepatocellular dysfunction, biliary tract obstruction, or biliary atresia can result in liver damage and hepatitis.[10][11]

The term is derived from the Greek hêpar (ἧπαρ), meaning “liver,” and the suffix -itis (-ῖτις), meaning “inflammation” (c. 1727).[2]

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one cause of a fatty liver, occurring when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver not due to excessive alcohol use. It is related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and may respond to treatments originally developed for other insulin-resistant states (e.g. diabetes mellitus type 2) such as weight loss, metformin and thiazolidinediones.[1] Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most extreme form of NAFLD, and is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver of unknown cause.[2]

Most patients with NAFLD have few or no symptoms. Patients may complain of fatigue, malaise, and dull right-upper-quadrant abdominal discomfort. Mild jaundice may be noticed although this is rare. More commonly NAFLD is diagnosed following abnormal liver function tests during routine blood tests. By definition, alcohol consumption of over 20 g/day (about 25 ml/day of net ethanol) excludes the condition.[1]

NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (obesity, combined hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus (type II) and high blood pressure).[1][2]

Common findings are elevated liver enzymes and a liver ultrasound showing steatosis. An ultrasound may also be used to exclude gallstone problems (cholelithiasis). A liver biopsy(tissue examination) is the only test widely accepted as definitively distinguishing NASH from other forms of liver disease and can be used to assess the severity of the inflammationand resultant fibrosis.[1]

Non-invasive diagnostic tests have been developed, such as FibroTest, that estimates liver fibrosis,[7] and SteatoTest, that estimates steatosis,[8] however their use has not been widely adopted.[9] Apoptosis has been indicated as a potential mechanism of hepatocyte injury as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30-Apoptosense ELISA) in serum/plasma is often elevated in patients with NASH; however, as the role of oncotic necrosis has yet to be examined it is unknown to what degree apoptosis acts as the predominant form of injury.[10][11]

Other diagnostic tests are available. Relevant blood tests include erythrocyte sedimentation rate, glucose, albumin, and renal function. Because the liver is important for making proteins used in coagulation some coagulation related studies are often carried out especially the INR (international normalized ratio). Blood tests (serology) are usually used to rule out viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C and herpes viruses like EBV or CMV), rubella, and autoimmune related diseases. Hypothyroidism is more prevalent in NASH patients which would be detected by determining the TSH.[12]

It has been suggested that in cases involving overweight patients whose blood tests do not improve on losing weight and exercising that a further search of other underlying causes be undertaken. This would also apply to those with fatty liver who are very young or not overweight or insulin-resistant. In addition those whose physical appearance indicates the possibility of a congenital syndrome, have a family history of liver disease, have abnormalities in other organs, and those that present with moderate to advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis.[13]


A large number of treatments for NAFLD have been studied. While many appear to improve biochemical markers such as alanine transaminase levels, most have not been shown to reverse histological abnormalities or reduce clinical endpoints:[1]

  • Treatment of nutrition and excessive body weight:
    • Nutritional counseling: Diet changes have shown significant histological improvement.[14] Specifically, avoiding food containing high-fructose corn syrup and trans-fats is recommended.[15]
    • Weight loss: gradual weight loss may improve the process in obese patients; rapid loss may worsen NAFLD. Specifically, walking or some form of aerobic exercise at least 30–45 minutes daily is recommended.[15] The negative effects of rapid weight loss are controversial: the results of a meta-analysis showed that the risk of progression is very low.[16]
    • A recent meta-analysis presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) reported that weight-loss surgery leads to improvement and or resolution of NASH in around 80% of patients.[17]
  • Insulin sensitisers (metformin[18] and thiazolidinediones[19]) have shown efficacy in some studies.
  • ursodeoxycholic acid and lipid-lowering drugs, have little benefit.[citation needed]
  • Vitamin E: Vitamin E can improve some symptoms of NASH and was superior to insulin sensitizer in one large study. In the Pioglitazone versus Vitamin E versus Placebo for the Treatment of Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial, for patients with NASH but without diabetes mellitus, the use of very high dosages of vitamin E (800 IU/day) for four years was associated with a significantly higher rate of improvement than placebo (43% vs. 19%) in the primary outcome. The primary outcome was an improvement in certain histological features as measured by biopsy—but it did not improve fibrosis. Pioglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, improved some features of NASH but not the primary outcome, and resulted in a significant weight gain (mean 4.7 kilograms) which persisted after pioglitazone was discontinued.[20]
  • Statin: Improvements in liver biochemistry and histology in patients with NAFLD through treatment with statins have been observed in numerous cases, although these studies were carried out on a relatively small sample of patients.[21] Statins have also been recommended for use in treating dyslipidemia for patients with NAFLD.
  • Modest wine drinking: In a study using the NHANES III dataset, it has been shown that mild alcohol consumption (one glass of wine a day) reduces the risk of NAFLD by half.[22]


The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ranges from 9 to 36.9% of the population in different parts of the world.[23][24][25] Approximately 20% of the United States population suffers from non-alcoholic fatty liver, and the prevalence of this condition is increasing.[26] The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is higher in Hispanics, which can be attributed to high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic populations.[27] Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is also more common among men than women in all age groups until age 60, where the prevalence between sex equalize. This is due to the protective nature of estrogen.[28]

Foods High In Oxalates‎

Oxalates are naturally-occurring substances found in plants, animals, and in humans. In chemical terms, oxalates belong to a group of molecules called organic acids, and are routinely made by plants, animals, and humans. Our bodies always contain oxalates, and our cells routinely convert other substances into oxalates. For example, vitamin C is one of the substances that our cells routinely convert into oxalates. In addition to the oxalates that are made inside of our body, oxalates can arrive at our body from the outside, from certain foods that contain them.

Although many foods contain oxalate, only nine foods are known to increase oxalate in the urine and kidney stone formation. They are: beets, spinach, rhubarb, strawberries, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and all dry beans (fresh, canned, or cooked), excluding lima and green beans. It is best to avoid these foods.

The following are some examples of the most common sources of oxalates, arranged by food group. It is important to note that the leaves of a plant almost always contain higher oxalate levels than the roots, stems, and stalks.

blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, currants, kiwifruit, concord (purple) grapes, figs, tangerines, and plums
spinach, Swiss chard, beets (root part), beet greens (leaf part), collards, okra, parsley, leeks and quinoa are among the most oxalate-dense vegetables
celery, green beans, rutabagas, and summer squash would be considered moderately dense in oxalates
Nuts and seeds
almonds, cashews, and peanuts
soybeans, tofu and other soy products
wheat bran, wheat germ, quinoa (a vegetable often used like a grain)
cocoa, chocolate, and black tea

There are a few, relatively rare health conditions that require strict oxalate restriction. These conditions include absorptive hypercalciuria type II, enteric hyperoxaluria, and primary hyperoxaluria. Dietary oxalates are usually restricted to 50 milligrams per day under these circumstances. (Please note: these relatively rare health conditions are different than a more common condition called nephrolithiasis in which kidney stones are formed, 80% from calcium and oxalate). What does 50 milligrams of oxalate look like in terms of food? One cup of raw spinach in leaf form (not chopped) weighs about one ounce, and contains about 200 milligrams of oxalate, so 50 milligrams for the day would permit a person to consume only 1/4 cup of raw spinach (and no other oxalate sources could be eaten during the day).

Oxalates and kidney stones

The formation of kidney stones containing oxalate is an area of controversy in clinical nutrition with respect to dietary restriction of oxalate. About 80% of kidney stones formed by adults in the U.S. are calcium oxalate stones. It is not clear from the research, however, that restriction of dietary oxalate helps prevent formation of calcium oxalate stones in individuals who have previously formed such stones. Since intake of dietary oxalate accounts for only 10-15% of the oxalate that is found in the urine of individuals who form calcium oxalate stones, many researchers believe that dietary restriction cannot significantly reduce risk of stone formation.

In addition to the above observation, recent research studies have shown that intake of protein, calcium, and water influence calcium oxalate affect stone formation as much as, or more than intake of oxalate. Finally, some foods that have traditionally been assumed to increase stone formation because of their oxalate content (like black tea) actually appear in more recent research to have a preventive effect. For all of the above reasons, when healthcare providers recommend restriction of dietary oxalates to prevent calcium oxalate stone formation in individuals who have previously formed stones, they often suggest “limiting” or “reducing” oxalate intake rather than setting a specific milligram amount that should not be exceeded. “Reduce as much as can be tolerated” is another way that recommendations are often stated.

The effect of cooking on oxalates

Cooking has a relatively small impact on the oxalate content of foods. Repeated food chemistry studies have shown no statistically significant lowering of oxalate content following the blanching or boiling of green leafy vegetables. A lowering of oxalate content by about 5-15% is the most you should expect when cooking a high-oxalate food. It does not make sense to overcook oxalate-containing foods in order to reduce their oxalate content. Because many vitamins and minerals are lost from overcooking more quickly than are oxalates, the overcooking of foods (particularly vegetables) will simply result in a far less nutritious diet that is minimally lower in oxalates.

Practical tips

For the vast majority of individuals who have not experienced the specific problems described above, oxalate-containing foods should not be a health concern. Under most circumstances, high oxalate foods like spinach can be eaten raw or cooked and incorporated into a weekly or daily meal plan as both baby spinach and mature, large leaf spinach can both make healthy additions to most meal plans. In short, the decision about raw versus cooked or baby versus mature leaf spinach or other oxalate-containing vegetables, for example, should be a matter of personal taste and preference for most individuals.

Table 1

Raw Vegetable Oxalate content milligrams per 100 gram serving
Spinach 750
Beet greens 610
Okra 146
Parsley 100
Leeks 89
Collard greens 74
Adapted from the following sources: (1) United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Agriculture Handbook Number 8-11, “Composition of Foods: Vegetables and Vegetable Products.” Revised August 1984; (2) data gathered by LithoLink Corporation, a metabolic testing and disease management service for kidney stone patients, founded by Dr. Fredric Coe, a University of Chicago Medical School Professor, and posted on its website at; (3)data presented by Holmes RP and Kennedy M. (2000). Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake. Kidney International(4):1662.


Assimos, D. G. and Holmes, R. P. Role of diet in the therapy of urolithiasis. Urol Clin North Am. 2000 May; 27(2):255-68.

Curhan, G. C. Epidemiologic evidence for the role of oxalate in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. J Endourol. 1999 Nov; 13(9):629-31.

Freidig AK and Goldman IL. Variation in Oxalic Acid Content among Commercial Table Beet Cultivars and Related Crops. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science JASHS January 2011 vol. 136 no. 1, pages 54-60.

Hanson, C. F.; Frankos, V. H., and Thompson, W. O. Bioavailability of oxalic acid from spinach, sugar beet fibre and a solution of sodium oxalate consumed by female volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol. 1989 Mar; 27(3):181-4.

Kelsay, J. L. and Prather, E. S. Mineral balances of human subjects consuming spinach in a low-fiber diet and in a diet containing fruits and vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Jul; 38(1):12-9.

Kikunaga, S.; Arimori, M., and Takahashi, M. The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol(Tokyo). 1988 Apr; 34(2):195-207.

Parivar, F.; Low, R. K., and Stoller, M. L. The influence of diet on urinary stone disease. J Urol. 1996 Feb; 155(2):432-40

Prakash D, Nath P, and Pal M. (1993). Composition, variation of nutritional contents in leaves, seed protein, fat and fatty acid profile of chenopodium species. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 62(2):203-205.

Sienera R. (2006). Oxalate contents of species of the Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae families. Food Chemistry 98(2):220-224.

Simpson TS, Savage GP, Sherlock R, et al. Oxalate content of silver beet leaves (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) at different stages of maturation and the effect of cooking with different milk sources. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25;57(22):10804-8. doi: 10.1021/jf902124w.

Mixed flour bread



1/4 cup yellow cornmeal
1/4 cup packed brown sugar
1 teaspoon salt
2 Tablespoons vegetable oil
1 cup boiling water
1 package active dry yeast
1/4 cup warm (105 – 115 degrees) water
1/3 cup whole wheat flour
1/4 cup rye flour
2 1/4 – 2 3/4 cup all purpose flour




  • Mix cornmeal, brown sugar, salt and oil with boiling water, cool to lukewarm (105 – 115 degrees).
  • Dissolve yeast in 1/4 cup warm water; stir into cornmeal mixture. Add whole wheat and rye flours and mix well. Stir in enough all purpose flour to make dough stiff enough to knead.
  • Turn dough onto lightly floured surface. Knead until smooth and elastic, about 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Place dough in lightly oiled bowl, turning oil top. Cover with clean towel; let rise in warm place until double, about 1 hour.
  • Punch dough down; turn onto clean surface. Cover with clean towel; let rest 10 minutes. Shape dough and place in greased 9 x 5 inch pan. Cover with clean towel; let rise until almost double, about 1 hour.
  • Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Bake 35 to 45 minutes or until bread sounds hollow when tapped. Cover with aluminum foil during baking if bread is browning too quickly. Remove bread from pan and cool on wire rack.



Honey Wheat Bread

A 100% whole wheat bread will have a coarser texture than bread make with a mix of Whole Wheat and All Purpose Flour
Bake: 375 Ffor 30 – 35 minutes.

  • 1 packet active dry yeast
  • 2 cups warm water
  • 1/3 cup honey or dark molasses
  • 2 tablespoons soft shortening
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 51/2 – 6 cups Whole wheat flour
  1. In mixing bowl place in order all ingredients except flour.
  2. Add flour gradually to make a stiff dough.
  3. Knead on a well-floured surfaced until smooth and satiny, eight to ten minutes.
  4. Place in greased bowl.
  5. Cover. let rise in warm place until doubled, 11/2 – 2 hours.
  6. Divide in half. Shape into balls.
  7. Cover with bowl;  let rest 15 minutes, shape into loaves.
  8. Place in well-greased pan, 9×5 or 8×4.
  9. Cover; let rise until light and double, about an hour.
  10. Bake at 375F0 for 30 to 35 minutes, or until deep golden brown.